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Patients who present with microscopic or gross painless hematuria clearly require urologic evaluation. Urinary
frequency, urgency, and dysuria, which are the characteristic symptoms of a urinary tract infection, may also
indicate Carcinoma in situI. These symptoms are particularly confusing because they may be intermittent and
can resolve with an incidental temporal relationship to the administration of antibiotics, further supporting
an erroneous diagnosis of urinary tract infection.
The most common symptoms of bladder cancer include the following:
Blood in the urine (hematuria)
Pain or burning during urination without evidence of urinary tract infection
Change in bladder habits, such as having to urinate more often or feeling the strong urge to urinate without
producing much urine
These symptoms are nonspecific. This means that these symptoms are also linked with many other conditions that
have nothing to do with cancer.
Having these symptoms does not necessarily mean you have bladder cancer.
If you have any of these symptoms, you should see your health-care provider right away. People who can see
blood in their urine, especially older males who smoke, are considered to have a high likelihood of bladder
cancer until proven otherwise.
Blood in the urine is usually the first warning sign of bladder cancer.
Unfortunately, the blood is often invisible to the eye. This is called microscopic hematuria, and it is
detectable with a simple urine test.
In some cases, enough blood is in the urine to noticeably change the urine color. The urine may have a
slightly pink or orange hue, or it may be bright red with or without clots
If your urine changes color, you need to see your health-care provider.
Bladder cancer often causes no symptoms until it reaches an advanced state that is difficult to cure.
Therefore, you may want to talk to your health-care provider about screening tests if you have risk factors
for bladder cancer. Screening is testing for cancer in people who have never had the disease and have no
symptoms but who have one or more risk factors.
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